Some NT commands...

ASSOC    Displays or modifies file extension associations
AT       Schedules commands and programs to run on a computer.
ATTRIB   Displays or changes file attributes.
BREAK    Sets or clears extended CTRL+C checking.
CACLS    Displays or modifies access control lists (ACLs) of files.
CALL     Calls one batch program from another.
CD       Displays the name of or changes the current directory.
CHCP     Displays or sets the active code page number.
CHDIR    Displays the name of or changes the current directory.
CHKDSK   Checks a disk and displays a status report.
CLS      Clears the screen.
CMD      Starts a new instance of the Windows NT command interpreter.
COLOR    Sets the default console foreground and background colors.
COMP     Compares the contents of two files or sets of files.
COMPACT  Displays or alters the compression of files on NTFS partitions.
CONVERT  Converts FAT volumes to NTFS.  You cannot convert the
         current drive.
COPY     Copies one or more files to another location.
DATE     Displays or sets the date.
DEL      Deletes one or more files.
DIR      Displays a list of files and subdirectories in a directory.
DISKCOMP Compares the contents of two floppy disks.
DISKCOPY Copies the contents of one floppy disk to another.
DOSKEY   Edits command lines, recalls Windows NT commands, and creates macros.
ECHO     Displays messages, or turns command echoing on or off.
ENDLOCAL Ends localization of environment changes in a batch file.
ERASE    Deletes one or more files.
EXIT     Quits the CMD.EXE program (command interpreter).
FC       Compares two files or sets of files, and displays the differences
         between them.
FIND     Searches for a text string in a file or files.
FINDSTR  Searches for strings in files.
FOR      Runs a specified command for each file in a set of files.
FORMAT   Formats a disk for use with Windows NT.
FTYPE    Displays or modifies file types used in file extension associations.
GOTO     Directs the Windows NT command interpreter to a labeled line in a
         batch program.
GRAFTABL Enables Windows NT to display an extended character set in graphics
         mode.
HELP     Provides Help information for Windows NT commands.
IF       Performs conditional processing in batch programs.
KEYB     Configures a keyboard for a specific language.
LABEL    Creates, changes, or deletes the volume label of a disk.
MD       Creates a directory.
MKDIR    Creates a directory.
MODE     Configures a system device.
MORE     Displays output one screen at a time.
MOVE     Moves one or more files from one directory to another directory on
         the same drive.
NBTSTAT  Displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP connections using NBT
NET      Networking information / configuration
NETSTAT  Displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP network connections.
PATH     Displays or sets a search path for executable files.
PAUSE    Suspends processing of a batch file and displays a message.
POPD     Restores the previous value of the current directory saved by PUSHD.
PRINT    Prints a text file.
PROMPT   Changes the Windows NT command prompt.
PUSHD    Saves the current directory then changes it.
RD       Removes a directory.
RECOVER  Recovers readable information from a bad or defective disk.
REM      Records comments (remarks) in batch files or CONFIG.SYS.
REN      Renames a file or files.
RENAME   Renames a file or files.
REPLACE  Replaces files.
RESTORE  Restores files that were backed up by using the BACKUP command.
RMDIR    Removes a directory.
SET      Displays, sets, or removes Windows NT environment variables.
SETLOCAL Begins localization of environment changes in a batch file.
SHIFT    Shifts the position of replaceable parameters in batch files.
SORT     Sorts input.
START    Starts a separate window to run a specified program or command.
SUBST    Associates a path with a drive letter.
TIME     Displays or sets the system time.
TITLE    Sets the window title for a CMD.EXE session.
TREE     Graphically displays the directory structure of a drive or path.
TYPE     Displays the contents of a text file.
VER      Displays the Windows NT version.
VERIFY   Tells Windows NT whether to verify that your files are written
         correctly to a disk.
VOL      Displays a disk volume label and serial number.
XCOPY    Copies files and directory trees.


******
*  CMD
******
Starts a new instance of the Windows/NT command interpreter

(Extended in Win2k)

CMD [/X | /Y] [/A | /U] [/Q] [[/C | /K] string]

/C      Carries out the command specified by string and then terminates
/K      Carries out the command specified by string but remains
/Q      Turns the echo off
/A      Causes the output of internal commands to a pipe or file to be ANSI
/U      Causes the output of internal commands to a pipe or file to be Unicode
/T:fg   Sets the foreground/background colors (see COLOR /? for more info)
/X      Enable extensions to the Windows NT version of CMD.EXE
/Y      Disable extensions to the Windows NT version of CMD.EXE

Note that multiple commands separated by the command separator '&&'
are accepted for string if surrounded by quotes

Command Extensions are enabled by default.  You may also disable
extensions for all invocations of the command processor by setting the
following value in the registry to 0

    HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Command Processor\EnableExtensions

The command extensions involve changes and/or additions to the following
commands:

    DEL or ERASE
    COLOR
    CD or CHDIR
    MD or MKDIR
    PROMPT
    PUSHD
    POPD
    SET
    SETLOCAL
    ENDLOCAL
    IF
    FOR
    CALL
    SHIFT
    GOTO
    START (also includes changes to external command invocation)
    ASSOC
    FTYPE

To get specific details, type HELP commandname to view the specifics.


******
* DEL
******
Deletes one or more files.

DEL [/P] [/F] [/S] [/Q] [/A[[:]attributes]] [[drive:][path]filename
ERASE [/P] [/F] [/S] [/Q] [/A[[:]attributes]] [[drive:][path]filename

  [drive:][path]filename
                Specifies the file(s) to delete.  Specify multiple
                files by using wildcards.
  /P            Prompts for confirmation before deleting each file.
  /F            Force deleting of read-only files.
  /S            Delete specified files from all subdirectories.
  /Q            Quiet mode, do not ask if ok to delete on global wildcard
  /A            Selects files to delete based on attributes
  attributes    R  Read-only files            S  System files
                H  Hidden files               A  Files ready for archiving
                -  Prefix meaning not

If Command Extensions are enabled DEL and ERASE change as follows:

The display semantics of the /S switch are reversed in that it shows
you only the files that are deleted, not the ones it could not find.


******
* COLOR
******
Sets the default console foreground and background colors.

COLOR [attr]

  attr        Specifies color attribute of console output

Color attributes are specified by TWO hex digits -- the first
corresponds to the background; the second the foreground.  Each digit
can be any of the following values:

    0 = Black       8 = Gray
    1 = Blue        9 = Light Blue
    2 = Green       A = Light Green
    3 = Aqua        B = Light Aqua
    4 = Red         C = Light Red
    5 = Purple      D = Light Purple
    6 = Yellow      E = Light Yellow
    7 = White       F = Bright White

If no argument is given, this command restores the color to what it was
when CMD.EXE started.  This value either comes from the current console
window, the /T command line switch or from the DefaultColor registry
value.

The COLOR command sets ERRORLEVEL to 1 if an attempt is made to execute
the COLOR command with a foreground and background color that are the
same.

Example: "COLOR fc" produces light red on bright white

******
* CD
******
Displays the name of or changes the current directory.

CHDIR [/D] [drive:][path]
CHDIR [..]
CD [/D] [drive:][path]
CD [..]

  ..   Specifies that you want to change to the parent directory.

Type CD drive: to display the current directory in the specified drive.
Type CD without parameters to display the current drive and directory.

Use the /D switch to change current drive in addition to changing current
directory for a drive.

If Command Extensions are enabled CHDIR changes as follows:

The current directory string is converted to use the same case as
the on disk names.  So CD C:\TEMP would actually set the current
directory to C:\Temp if that is the case on disk.

CHDIR command does not treat spaces as delimeters, so it is possible to
CD into a subdirectory name that contains a space without surrounding
the name with quotes.  For example:

    cd \winnt\profiles\username\programs\start menu

is the same as:

    cd "\winnt\profiles\username\programs\start menu"

which is what you would have to type if extensions were disabled.

******
* FOR
******
Runs a specified command for each file in a set of files.

(Extended in Win2k)

FOR %variable IN (set) DO command [command-parameters]

  %variable Specifies a replaceable parameter.
  (set)      Specifies a set of one or more files.  Wildcards may be used.
  command    Specifies the command to carry out for each file.
  command-parameters
             Specifies parameters or switches for the specified command.

To use the FOR command in a batch program, specify %%variable instead
of %variable Variable names are case sensitive, so %i is different
from %I.

If Command Extensions are enabled, the following additional
forms of the FOR command are supported:

FOR /D %variable IN (set) DO command [command-parameters]

    If set contains wildcards, then specifies to match against directory
    names instead of file names.

FOR /R [[drive:]path] %variable IN (set) DO command [command-parameters]

    Walks the directory tree rooted at [drive:]path, executing the FOR
    statement in each directory of the tree.  If no directory
    specification is specified after /R then the current directory is
    assumed.  If set is just a single period (.) character then it
    will just enumerate the directory tree.

FOR /L %variable IN (start,step,end) DO command [command-parameters]

    The set is a sequence of numbers from start to end, by step amount.
    So (1,1,5) would generate the sequence 1 2 3 4 5 and (5,-1,1) would
    generate the sequence (5 4 3 2 1)

FOR /F ["options"] %variable IN (filenameset) DO command [command-parameters]

    filenameset is one or more file names.  Each file is opened, read
    and processed before going on to the next file in filenameset.
    Processing consists of reading in the file, breaking it up into
    individual lines of text and then parsing each line into zero or
    more tokens.  The body of the for loop is then called with the
    variable value(s) set to the found token string(s).  By default, /F
    passes the first blank separated token from each line of each file.
    Blank lines are skipped.  You can override the default parsing
    behavior by specifying the optional "options" parameter.  This
    is a quoted string which contains one or more keywords to specify
    different parsing parameters.  The keywords are:

        eol=c           - specifies an end of line comment character
                          (just one)
        skip=n          - specifies the number of lines to skip at the
                          beginning of the file.
        delims=xxx      - specifies a delimeter set.  This replaces the
                          default delimiter set of space and tab.
        tokens=x,y,m-n  - specifies which tokens from each line are to
                          be passed to the for body for each iteration.
                          This will cause additional variable names to
                          be allocated.  The m-n form is a range,
                          specifying the mth through the nth tokens.  If
                          the last character in the tokens= string is an
                          asterisk, then an additional variable is
                          allocated and receives the remaining text on
                          the line after the last token parsed.

    Some examples might help:

      FOR /F "eol=; tokens=2,3* delims=, " %i in (myfile.txt) do @echo %i %j %k

    would parse each line in myfile.txt, ignoring lines that begin with
    a semicolon, passing the 2nd and 3rd token from each line to the for
    body, with tokens delimited by commas and/or spaces.  Notice the for
    body statements reference %i to get the 2nd token, %j to get the
    3rd token, and %k to get all remaining tokens after the 3rd.

    %i is explicitly declared in the for statement and the %j and %k
    are implicitly declared via the tokens= option.  You can specify up
    to 26 tokens via the tokens= line, provided it does not cause an
    attempt to declare a variable higher than the letter 'z'.  Remember,
    FOR variable names are global, and you can't have more than 26 total
    active at any one time.

    You can also use the FOR /F parsing logic on an immediate string, by
    making the filenameset between the parenthesis a quoted string.  It
    will be treated as a single line of input from a file and parsed.

    Finally, you can use the FOR /F command to parse the output of a
    command.  You do this by making the filenameset between the
    parenthesis a single quoted string.  It will be treated as a command
    line, which is passed to a child CMD.EXE and the output is captured
    into memory and parsed as if it was a file.  So the following
    example:

      FOR /F "delims==" %i IN ('set') DO @echo %i

    would enumerate the environment variable names in the current
    environment.

In addition, substitution of FOR variable references has been enhanced.
You can now use the following optional syntax:

    %~fi        - expands %i to a fully qualified path name
    %~di        - expands %i to a drive letter only
    %~pi        - expands %i to a path only
    %~ni        - expands %i to a file name only
    %~xi        - expands %i to a file extension only
    %~si        - expanded path contains short names only
    %~$PATH:i   - searches the directories listed in the PATH
                   environment variable and expands %i to the
                   fully qualified name of the first one found.
                   If the environment variable name is not
                   defined or the file is not found by the
                   search, then this modifier expands to the
                   empty string

The modifiers can be combined to get compound results:

    %~dpi       - expands %i to a drive letter and path only
    %~nxi       - expands %i to a file name and extension only
    %~fsi       - expands %i to a full path name with short names only
    %~dp$PATH:i - searches the directories listed in the PATH
                   environment variable for %i and expands to the
                   drive letter and path of the first one found.

In the above examples %i and PATH can be replaced by other
valid values.  Just be careful to pick your FOR variable letters
to not conflict with any of the format specifier letters if you
plan on using the enhanced substitution logic.

******
* IF
******
Performs conditional processing in batch programs.

(Extended in Win2k)

IF [NOT] ERRORLEVEL number command
IF [NOT] string1==string2 command
IF [NOT] EXIST filename command

  NOT               Specifies that Windows NT should carry out the command only
                    if the condition is false.
  ERRORLEVEL number Specifies a true condition if the last program run returned
                    an exit code equal to or greater than the number specified.
  command           Specifies the command to carry out if the condition is
                    met.
  string1==string2  Specifies a true condition if the specified text strings
                    match.
  EXIST filename    Specifies a true condition if the specified filename
                    exists.

If Command Extensions are enabled IF changes as follows:

    IF [/I] string1 compare-op string2 command
    IF CMDEXTVERSION number command
    IF DEFINED variable command

where compare-op may be one of:

    EQU - equal
    NEQ - not equal
    LSS - less than
    LEQ - less than or equal
    GTR - greater than
    GEQ - greater than or equal

and the /I switch, if specified, says to do case insensitive string
compares.  The /I switch can also be used on the string1==string2 form
of IF.  These comparisons are generic, in that if both string1 and
string2 are both comprised of all numeric digits, then the strings are
converted to numbers and a numeric comparison is performed.

The CMDEXTVERSION conditional works just like ERRORLEVEL, except it is
comparing against an internal version number associated with the Command
Extensions.  The first version is 1.  It will be incremented by one when
significant enhancements are added to the Command Extensions.
CMDEXTVERSION conditional is never true when Command Extensions are
disabled.

The DEFINED conditional works just like EXISTS except it takes an
environment variable name and returns true if the environment variable
is defined.

%ERRORLEVEL% will expand into a string representation of
the current value of ERRORLEVEL, provided that there is not already
an environment variable with the name ERRORLEVEL, in which case you
will get its value instead.  Using this and the above numerical
comparision operators, you can do the following

    choice
    goto answer%ERRORLEVEL%
    :answer0
    echo You typed Y for yes
    :answer1
    echo You typed N for no

you can also using the numerical comparisons above:

    IF %ERRORLEVEL% LEQ 1 goto okay

%CMDCMDLINE% will expand into the original command line passed to
CMD.EXE prior to any processing by CMD.EXE, provided that there is not
already an environment variable with the name CMDCMDLINE, in which case
you will get its value instead.

******
* MD
******
Creates a directory.

MKDIR [drive:]path
MD [drive:]path

If Command Extensions are enabled MKDIR changes as follows:

MKDIR creates any intermediate directories in the path, if needed.
For example, assume \a does not exist then:

    mkdir \a\b\c\d

is the same as:

    mkdir \a
    chdir \a
    mkdir b
    chdir b
    mkdir c
    chdir c
    mkdir d

which is what you would have to type if extensions were disabled.

******
* PROMPT
******
Changes the cmd.exe command prompt.

PROMPT [text]

  text    Specifies a new command prompt.

Prompt can be made up of normal characters and the following special codes:

  $A   & (Ampersand)
  $B   | (pipe)
  $C   ( (Left parenthesis)
  $D   Current date
  $E   Escape code (ASCII code 27)
  $F   ) (Right parenthesis)
  $G   > (greater-than sign)
  $H   Backspace (erases previous character)
  $L   < (less-than sign)
  $N   Current drive
  $P   Current drive and path
  $Q   = (equal sign)
  $S     (space)
  $T   Current time
  $V   Windows NT version number
  $_   Carriage return and linefeed
  $$   $ (dollar sign)

If Command Extensions are enabled the PROMPT command supports
the following additional formatting characters:

  $+   zero or more plus sign (+) characters depending upon the
       depth of the PUSHD directory stack, one character for each
       level pushed.

  $M   Displays the remote name associated with the current drive
       letter or the empty string if current drive is not a network
       drive.

******
* PUSHD
******
Stores the current directory for use by the POPD command, then
changes to the specified directory.

PUSHD [path | ..]

  path        Specifies the directory to make the current directory.

If Command Extensions are enabled the PUSHD command accepts
network paths in addition to the normal drive letter and path.
If a network path is specified, PUSHD will create a temporary
drive letter that points to that specified network resource and
then change the current drive and directory, using the newly
defined drive letter.  Temporary drive letters are allocated from
Z: on down, using the first unused drive letter found.

******
* POPD
******
Changes to the directory stored by the PUSHD command.

POPD


If Command Extensions are enabled the POPD command will delete
any temporary drive letter created by PUSHD when you POPD that
drive off the pushed directory stack.


******
* RD
******
Removes (deletes) a directory.

RMDIR [/S] [/Q] [drive:]path
RD [/S] [/Q] [drive:]path

    /S      Removes all directories and files in the specified directory
            in addition to the directory itself.  Used to remove a directory
            tree.

    /Q      Quiet mode, do not ask if ok to remove a directory tree with /S

******
* SET
******
Displays, sets, or removes cmd.exe environment variables.

(Extended in Win2k)

SET [variable=[string]]

  variable  Specifies the environment-variable name.
  string    Specifies a series of characters to assign to the variable.

Type SET without parameters to display the current environment variables.

If Command Extensions are enabled SET changes as follows:

SET command invoked with just a variable name, no equal sign or value
will display the value of all variables whose prefix matches the name
given to the SET command.  For example:

    SET P

would display all variables that begin with the letter 'P'

SET command will set the ERRORLEVEL to 1 if the variable name is not
found in the current environment.

SET command will allow an equal sign (=) in the value of an environment
variable in any position other than the first character.

A new switch is added to the SET command:

    SET /A expression

The /A switch specifies that the string to the right of the equal sign
is a numerical expression that is evaluated.  The expression evaluator
is pretty simple and supports the following operations, in decreasing
order of precedence:

    ()                  - grouping
    * / %               - arithmetic operators
    + -                 - arithmetic operators
    << >>               - logical shift
    &                   - bitwise and
    ^                   - bitwise exclusive or
    |                   - bitwise or
    = *= /= %= += -=    - assignment
      &= ^= |= <<= >>=
    ,                   - expression separator

If you use any of the logical or modulus operators, you will need to
enclose the expression string in quotes.  Any non-numeric strings in the
expression are treated as environment variable names whose values are
converted to numbers before using them.  If an environment variable name
is specified but is not defined in the current environment, then a value
of zero is used.  This allows you to do arithmetic with environment
variable values without having to type all those % signs to get their
values.  If SET /A is executed from the command line outside of a
command script, then it displays the final value of the expression.  The
assignment operator requires an environment variable name to the left of
the assignment operator.  Numeric values are decimal numbers, unless
prefixed by 0x for hexidecimal numbers, 0b for binary numbers and 0 for
octals numbers.  So 0x12 is the same as 0b10010 is the same as 022.
Please note that the octal notation can be confusing: 08 and 09 are
not valid numbers because 8 and 9 are not valid octal digits.

Environment variable substitution has been enhanced as follows:

    %PATH:str1=str2%

would expand the PATH environment variable, substituting each occurrence
of "str1" in the expanded result with "str2".  "str2" can be the empty
string to effectively delete all occurrences of "str1" from the expanded
output.  "str1" can begin with an asterisk, in which case it will match
everything from the begining of the expanded output to the first
occurrence of the remaining portion of str1.

    %PATH:~10,5%

would expand the PATH environment variable, and then use only the 5
characters that begin at the 11th (offset 10) character of the expanded
result.

******
* SETLOCAL
******
Begins localization of environment changes in a batch file.
Environment changes made after SETLOCAL has been issued are
local to the batch file.  ENDLOCAL must be issued to
restore the previous settings.

SETLOCAL

If Command Extensions are enabled SETLOCAL changes as follows:

SETLOCAL batch command now accepts an optional argument, which can be
either ENABLEEXTENSIONS or DISABLEEXTENSIONS.  This will enable or
disable the Command process extensions until the matching ENDLOCAL
command, regardless of their setting prior to the SETLOCAL command.

The SETLOCAL command will set the ERRORLEVEL value if given
an argument.  It will be zero if one of the two valid arguments
is given and one otherwise.  You can use this in batch scripts
to determine if the extensions are available, using the following
technique:

    VERIFY OTHER 2>nul
    SETLOCAL ENABLEEXTENSIONS
    IF ERRORLEVEL 1 echo Unable to enable extensions

This works because on old versions of CMD.EXE, SETLOCAL does NOT
set the ERRORLEVEL value. The VERIFY command with a bad argument
initializes the ERRORLEVEL value to a non-zero value.

******
* ENDLOCAL
******
Ends localization of environment changes in a batch file.
Environment changes made after ENDLOCAL has been issued are
not local to the batch file; the previous settings are not
restored on termination of the batch file.

ENDLOCAL

If Command Extensions are enabled ENDLOCAL changes as follows:

If the corresponding SETLOCAL enable or disabled command extensions
using the new ENABLEEXTENSIONS or DISABLEEXTENSIONS options, then
after the ENDLOCAL, the enabled/disabled state of command extensions
will be restored to what it was prior to the matching SETLOCAL
command execution.

******
* CALL
******
Calls one batch program from another.

(Extended in Win2k)

CALL [drive:][path]filename [batch-parameters]

  batch-parameters   Specifies any command-line information required by the
                     batch program.

If Command Extensions are enabled CALL changes as follows:

CALL command now accepts labels as the target of the CALL.  The syntax
is:

    CALL :label arguments

A new batch file context is created with the specified arguments and
control is passed to the statement after the label specified.  You must
"exit" twice by reaching the end of the batch script file twice.  The
first time you read the end, control will return to just after the CALL
statement.  The second time will exit the batch script.  Type GOTO /?
for a description of the GOTO :EOF extension that will allow you to
"return" from a batch script.

In addition, expansion of batch script argument references (%0, %1,
etc.) have been changed as follows:


    %* in a batch script refers to all the arguments (e.g. %1 %2 %3
        %4 %5 ...)

    Substitution of batch parameters (%n) has been enhanced.  You can
    now use the following optional syntax:

        %~f1        - expands %1 to a fully qualified path name
        %~d1        - expands %1 to a drive letter only
        %~p1        - expands %1 to a path only
        %~n1        - expands %1 to a file name only
        %~x1        - expands %1 to a file extension only
        %~s1        - changes the meaning of n and x options to
                       reference the short name instead
        %~$PATH:1   - searches the directories listed in the PATH
                       environment variable and expands %1 to the fully
                       qualified name of the first one found.  If the
                       environment variable name is not defined or the
                       file is not found by the search, then this
                       modifier expands to the empty string

    The modifiers can be combined to get compound results:

        %~dp1       - expands %1 to a drive letter and path only
        %~nx1       - expands %1 to a file name and extension only
        %~dp$PATH:1 - searches the directories listed in the PATH
                       environment variable for %1 and expands to the
                       drive letter and path of the first one found.

    In the above examples %1 and PATH can be replaced by other
    valid values

******
* SHIFT
******
Changes the position of replaceable parameters in a batch file.

SHIFT [/n]

If Command Extensions are enabled the SHIFT command supports
the /n switch which tells the command to start shifting at the
nth argument, where n may be between zero and eight.  For example:

    SHIFT /2

would shift %3 to %2, %4 to %3, etc. and leave %0 and %1 unaffected.

******
* GOTO
******
Directs cmd.exe to a labeled line in a batch program.

GOTO label

  label   Specifies a text string used in the batch program as a label.

You type a label on a line by itself, beginning with a colon.

If Command Extensions are enabled GOTO changes as follows:

GOTO command now accepts a target label of :EOF which transfers control
to the end of the current batch script file.  This is an easy way to
exit a batch script file without defining a label.  Type CALL /?  for a
description of extensions to the CALL command that make this feature
useful.

******
* START
******
Starts a separate window to run a specified program or command.

START ["title"] [/Dpath] [/I] [/MIN] [/MAX] [/SEPARATE | /SHARED]
      [/LOW | /NORMAL | /HIGH | /REALTIME] [/WAIT] [/B] [command/program] [parameters]

    "title"     Title to display in  window title bar.
    path        Starting directory
    I           The new environment will be the original environment passed
                to the cmd.exe and not the current environment.
    MIN         Start window minimized
    MAX         Start window maximized
    SEPARATE    Start 16-bit Windows program in separate memory space
    SHARED      Start 16-bit Windows program in shared memory space
    LOW         Start application in the IDLE priority class
    NORMAL      Start application in the NORMAL priority class
    HIGH        Start application in the HIGH priority class
    REALTIME    Start application in the REALTIME priority class
    WAIT        Start application and wait for it to terminate
    B           Start application without creating a new window. The
                application has ^C handling ignored. Unless the application
                enables ^C processing, ^Break is the only way to interrupt the
                application
    command/program
                If it is an internal cmd command or a batch file then
                the command processor is run with the /K switch to cmd.exe.
                This means that the window will remain after the command
                has been run.

                If it is not an internal cmd command or batch file then
                it is a program and will run as either a windowed application
                or a console application.

    parameters  These are the parameters passed to the command/program


If Command Extensions are enabled, external command invocation
through the command line or the START command changes as follows:

non-executable files may be invoked through their file association just
    by typing the name of the file as a command.  (e.g.  WORD.DOC would
    launch the application associated with the .DOC file extension).
    See the ASSOC and FTYPE commands for how to create these
    associations from within a command script.

When executing an application that is a 32-bit GUI application, CMD.EXE
    does not wait for the application to terminate before returning to
    the command prompt.  This new behavior does NOT occur if executing
    within a command script.

When executing a command line whose first token is CMD without an
    extension or path qualifier, then replaces CMD with the value of the
    COMSPEC variable, thus avoiding picking up random versions of
    CMD.EXE when you least expect them.

When executing a command line whose first token does NOT contain an
    extension, then CMD.EXE uses the value of the PATHEXT
    environment variable to determine which extensions to look for
    and in what order.  The default value for the PATHEXT variable
    is:

        .COM;.EXE;.BAT;.CMD

    Notice the syntax is the same as the PATH variable, with
    semicolons separating the different elements.

When executing a command, if there is no match on any extension, then
looks to see if the name, without any extension, matches a directory name
and if it does, the START command launches the Explorer on that path.
If done from the command line, it is the equivalent to doing a CD /D
to that path.

******
* ASSOC
******
Displays or modifies file extension associations

ASSOC [.ext[=[fileType]]]

  .ext      Specifies the file extension to associate the file type with
  fileType  Specifies the file type to associate with the file extension

Type ASSOC without parameters to display the current file associations.
If ASSOC is invoked with just a file extension, it displays the current
file association for that file extension.  Specify nothing for the file
type and the command will delete the association for the file extension.

******
* FTYPE
******
Displays or modifies file types used in file extension associations

FTYPE [fileType[=[openCommandString]]]

  fileType  Specifies the file type examine or change
  openCommandString Specifies the open command to use when launching files
                    of this type.

Type FTYPE without parameters to display the current file types that
have open command strings defined.  FTYPE is invoked with just a file
type, it displays the current open command string for that file type.
Specify nothing for the open command string and the FTYPE command will
delete the open command string for the file type.  Within an open
command string %0 or %1 are substituted with the file name being
launched through the assocation.  %* gets all the parameters and %2
gets the 1st parameter, %4 the second, etc.  %~n gets all the remaining
parameters starting with the nth parameter, where n may be between 2 and 9,
inclusive.  For example:

    ASSOC .pl=PerlScript
    FTYPE PerlScript=perl.exe %1 %*

would allow you to invoke a Perl script as follows:

    script.pl 1 2 3

If you want to eliminate the need to type the extensions, then do the
following:

    set PATHEXT=.pl;%PATHEXT%

and the script could be invoked as follows:

    script 1 2 3

******
* MORE
******
Displays output one screen at a time.

MORE [/E [/C] [/P] [/S] [/Tn] [+n]] < [drive:][path]filename
command-name | MORE [/E [/C] [/P] [/S] [/Tn] [+n]]
MORE /E [/C] [/P] [/S] [/Tn] [+n] [files]

    [drive:][path]filename  Specifies a file to display one
                            screen at a time.

    command-name            Specifies a command whose output
                            will be displayed.

    /E      Enable extended features
    /C      Clear screen before displaying page
    /P      Expand FormFeed characters
    /S      Squeeze multiple blank lines into a single line
    /Tn     Expand tabs to n spaces (default 8)

            Switches can be present in the MORE environment
            variable.

    +n      Start displaying the first file at line n

    files   List of files to be displayed. Files in the list
            are separated by blanks.

    If extended features are enabled, the following commands
    are accepted at the -- More -- prompt:

    P n     Display next n lines
    S n     Skip next n lines
    F       Display next file
    Q       Quit
    =       Show line number
    ?       Show help line
    <space> Display next page
    <ret>   Display next line

******
* FINDSTR
******
Searches for strings in files.

FINDSTR [/B] [/E] [/L] [/R] [/S] [/I] [/X] [/V] [/N] [/M] [/O] [/F:file]
        [/C:string] [/G:file] [strings] [[drive:][path]filename[ ...]]

  /B        Matches pattern if at the beginning of a line.
  /E        Matches pattern if at the end of a line.
  /L        Uses search strings literally.
  /R        Uses search strings as regular expressions.
  /S        Searches for matching files in the current directory and all
            subdirectories.
  /I        Specifies that the search is not to be case-sensitive.
  /X        Prints lines that match exactly.
  /V        Prints only lines that do not contain a match.
  /N        Prints the line number before each line that matches.
  /M        Prints only the filename if a file contains a match.
  /O        Prints character offset before each matching line.
  /P        Skip files with non-printable characters
  /F:file   Reads file list from the specified file(/ stands for console).
  /C:string Uses specified string as a literal search string.
  /G:file   Gets search strings from the specified file(/ stands for console).
  strings   Text to be searched for.
  [drive:][path]filename
            Specifies a file or files to search.

Use spaces to separate multiple search strings unless the argument is prefixed
with /C.  For example, 'FINDSTR "hello there" x.y' searches for "hello" or
"there" in file x.y.  'FINDSTR /C:"hello there" x.y' searches for
"hello there" in file x.y.


Findstr--Notes

Findstr is capable of finding the exact text you are looking for in any
ASCII file or files. Sometimes, however, you have only part of the information
that you want to match, or you want to find a wider range of information. In
such cases, findstr has the powerful capability to search for patterns of
text using regular expressions.

Regular expressions are a notation for specifying patterns of text, as opposed
to exact strings of characters. The notation uses literal characters and
metacharacters. Every character that does not have special meaning in the
regular-expression syntax is a literal character and matches an occurance of
that character. For example, letters and numbers are literal characters. A
metacharacter is a symbol with special meaning (an operator or delimiter) in
the regular-expression syntax. These are the metacharacters accepted by findstr:

 .	Wildcard: any character
 *	Repeat: zero or more occurances of previous character or class
 ^	Line position: beginning of line
 $	Line position: end of line
 [class]	Character class: any one character in set
 [^class]	Inverse class: any one character not in set
 [x-y]	Range: any characters within the specified range
 \x	Escape: literal use of metacharacter x
 \<xyz	Word position: beginning of word
 xyz\>	Word position: end of word

The special characters in regular expression syntax are most powerful when
they are used together. For example, the following combination of the wildcard
character (.) and repeat (*) characters
.*
matches any string of characters. This expression is useful when it is part of a
larger expression, such as
b.*ing
which matches any string beginning with B and ending with ing.
More Information About Findstr

Findstr--Examples

To find all occurances of the word Windows (with an initial capital w) in the
file PROPOSAL.TXT, type

  findstr Windows proposal.txt

To search every file in the current directory and all subdirectories that
contained the word Windows, regardless of the letter case, type

  findstr /s /i Windows *.*

To find all occurances of lines that contain the word FOR, preceeded by any number
of spaces, (as in a computer program loop) and to include the line number where
each occurance is found, type

  findstr /b /n /c:" *FOR" *.bas

If you want to search for several different items in the same set of files, create
a text file that contains each search criteria on a new line. You can also list
the exact files you want to search in a text file. To use the search criteria in
the file FINDDATA.TXT and search the files listed in FILELIST.TXT then store the
results in the file RESULTS.OUT, type

  findstr /g:finddata.txt /f:filelist.txt > results.out

Assume you wanted to find every file in the current directory and all
subdirectories that contained the word computer, regardless of the letter
case. To list every file containing the word computer, type

  findstr /s /i /m "\<computer\>" *.*

Now assume you want to find not only the word computer, but also any other words
that begin with the letters comp, such as compliment and compete. Type

  findstr /s /i /m "\<comp.*" *.*



******
* TITLE
******
Sets the window title for the command prompt window.

TITLE [string]

  string       Specifies the title for the command prompt window.

******
* AT
******
The AT command schedules commands and programs to run on a computer at
a specified time and date. The Schedule service must be running to use
the AT command.

AT [\\computername] [ [id] [/DELETE] | /DELETE [/YES]]
AT [\\computername] time [/INTERACTIVE]
    [ /EVERY:date[,...] | /NEXT:date[,...]] "command"

\\computername     Specifies a remote computer. Commands are scheduled on the
                   local computer if this parameter is omitted.
id                 Is an identification number assigned to a scheduled
                   command.
/delete            Cancels a scheduled command. If id is omitted, all the
                   scheduled commands on the computer are canceled.
/yes               Used with cancel all jobs command when no further
                   confirmation is desired.
time               Specifies the time when command is to run.
/interactive       Allows the job to interact with the desktop of the user
                   who is logged on at the time the job runs.
/every:date[,...]  Runs the command on each specified day(s) of the week or
                   month. If date is omitted, the current day of the month
                   is assumed.
/next:date[,...]   Runs the specified command on the next occurrence of the
                   day (for example, next Thursday).  If date is omitted, the
                   current day of the month is assumed.
"command"          Is the Windows NT command, or batch program to be run.


******
* NET
******

Networking commands


NET HELP
The syntax of this command is: NET HELP command -or- NET command /HELP Commands available are: NET ACCOUNTS NET HELP NET SHARE NET COMPUTER NET HELPMSG NET START NET CONFIG NET LOCALGROUP NET STATISTICS NET CONFIG SERVER NET NAME NET STOP NET CONFIG WORKSTATION NET PAUSE NET TIME NET CONTINUE NET PRINT NET USE NET FILE NET SEND NET USER NET GROUP NET SESSION NET VIEW NET HELP SERVICES lists the network services you can start. NET HELP SYNTAX explains how to read NET HELP syntax lines. NET HELP command | MORE displays Help one screen at a time.


NET ACCOUNTS
The syntax of this command is: NET ACCOUNTS [/FORCELOGOFF:{minutes | NO}] [/MINPWLEN:length] [/MAXPWAGE:{days | UNLIMITED}] [/MINPWAGE:days] [/UNIQUEPW:number] [/DOMAIN] NET ACCOUNTS [/SYNC] NET ACCOUNTS updates the user accounts database and modifies password and logon requirements for all accounts. When used without options, NET ACCOUNTS displays the current settings for password, logon limitations, and domain information. Two conditions are required in order for options used with NET ACCOUNTS to take effect: _ The password and logon requirements are only effective if user accounts have been set up (use User Manager or the NET USER command). _ The Net Logon service must be running on all servers in the domain that verify logon. Net Logon is started automatically when Windows NT starts. /SYNC Updates the user accounts database. /FORCELOGOFF:{minutes | NO} Sets the number of minutes a user has before being forced to log off when the account expires or valid logon hours expire. NO, the default, prevents forced logoff. /MINPWLEN:length Sets the minimum number of characters for a password. The range is 0-14 characters; the default is 6 characters. /MAXPWAGE:{days | UNLIMITED} Sets the maximum number of days that a password is valid. No limit is specified by using UNLIMITED. /MAXPWAGE can't be less than /MINPWAGE. The range is 1-49710; the default is 90 days. /MINPWAGE:days Sets the minimum number of days that must pass before a user can change a password. A value of 0 sets no minimum time. The range is 0-49710; the default is 0 days. /MINPWAGE can't be more than /MAXPWAGE. /UNIQUEPW:number Requires that a user's passwords be unique through the specified number of password changes. The maximum value is 24. /DOMAIN Performs the operation on the primary domain controller of the current domain. Otherwise, the operation is performed on the local computer. This parameter applies only to Windows NT Workstation computers that are members of a Windows NT Server domain. By default, Windows NT Server computers perform operations on the primary domain controller.

NET SHARE
The syntax of this command is: NET SHARE sharename sharename=drive:path [/USERS:number | /UNLIMITED] [/REMARK:"text"] sharename [/USERS:number | /UNLIMITED] [/REMARK:"text"] {sharename | devicename | drive:path} /DELETE NET SHARE makes a server's resources available to network users. When used without options, it lists information about all resources being shared on the computer. For each resource, Windows NT reports the devicename(s) or pathname(s) and a descriptive comment associated with it. sharename Is the network name of the shared resource. Type NET SHARE with a sharename only to display information about that share. drive:path Specifies the absolute path of the directory to be shared. /USERS:number Sets the maximum number of users who can simultaneously access the shared resource. /UNLIMITED Specifies an unlimited number of users can simultaneously access the shared resource /REMARK:"text" Adds a descriptive comment about the resource. Enclose the text in quotation marks. devicename Is one or more printers (LPT1: through LPT9:) shared by sharename. /DELETE Stops sharing the resource.

NET COMPUTER
The syntax of this command is: NET COMPUTER \\computername {/ADD | /DEL} NET COMPUTER adds or deletes computers from a domain database. This command is available only on Windows NT Servers. \\computername Specifies the computer to add or delete from the domain. /ADD Adds the specified computer to the domain. /DEL Removes the specified computer from the domain.

NET HELPMSG
The syntax of this command is: NET HELPMSG message# NET HELPMSG displays information about Windows NT network messages (such as error, warning, and alert messages). When you type NET HELPMSG and the 4-digit number of the Windows NT error (for example, NET2182), Windows NT tells you about the message and suggests action you can take to solve a problem. message# Is the 4-digit number of the Windows NT message you need help with. You don't need to type NET as part of the message number.

NET START
The syntax of this command is: NET START [service] NET START lists running services. To get more help about a specific service, see the online Command Reference (NTCMDS.HLP). service Is one of the following services: ALERTER CLIENT SERVICE FOR NETWARE CLIPBOOK SERVER COMPUTER BROWSER DHCP CLIENT DIRECTORY REPLICATOR EVENTLOG FTP SERVER LPDSVC MESSENGER NET LOGON NETWORK DDE NETWORK DDE DSDM NETWORK MONITORING AGENT NT LM SECURITY SUPPORT PROVIDER REMOTE ACCESS CONNECTION MANAGER REMOTE ACCESS ISNSAP SERVICE REMOTE ACCESS SERVER REMOTE PROCEDURE CALL (RPC) LOCATOR REMOTE PROCEDURE CALL (RPC) SERVICE SCHEDULE SERVER SIMPLE TCP/IP SERVICES SNMP SPOOLER TCPIP NETBIOS HELPER UPS WORKSTATION These services are available only on Windows NT Server: FILE SERVER FOR MACINTOSH GATEWAY SERVICE FOR NETWARE MICROSOFT DHCP SERVER PRINT SERVER FOR MACINTOSH REMOTEBOOT WINDOWS INTERNET NAME SERVICE When typed at the command prompt, service names of two words or more must be enclosed in quotation marks. For example, NET START "COMPUTER BROWSER" starts the computer browser service. NET START can also start network services not provided with Windows NT.

NET CONFIG
The syntax of this command is: NET CONFIG [SERVER | WORKSTATION] NET CONFIG displays configuration information of the Workstation or Server service. When used without the SERVER or WORKSTATION switch, it displays a list of configurable services. To get help with configuring a service, type NET HELP CONFIG service. SERVER Displays information about the configuration of the Server service. WORKSTATION Displays information about the configuration of the Workstation service.

NET LOCALGROUP
The syntax of this command is: NET LOCALGROUP [groupname [/COMMENT:"text"]] [/DOMAIN] groupname {/ADD [/COMMENT:"text"] | /DELETE} [/DOMAIN] groupname name [...] {/ADD | /DELETE} [/DOMAIN] NET LOCALGROUP modifies local groups on computers. When used without options, it displays the local groups on the computer. groupname Is the name of the local group to add, expand, or delete. Supply only a groupname to view a list of users or global groups in a local group. /COMMENT:"text" Adds a comment for a new or existing group. Enclose the text in quotation marks. /DOMAIN Performs the operation on the domain controller of the current domain. Otherwise, the operation is performed on the local workstation. This parameter applies only to Windows NT Workstation computers that are members of a Windows NT Server domain. By default, Windows NT Server computers perform operations on the primary domain controller. name [ ...] Lists one or more usernames or groupnames to add or to remove from a local group. Separate multiple entries with a space. Names may be users or global groups, but not other local groups. If a user is from another domain, preface the username with the domain name (for example, SALES\RALPHR). /ADD Adds a groupname or username to a local group. An account must be established for users or global groups added to a local group with this command. /DELETE Removes a groupname or username from a local group.

NET STATISTICS
The syntax of this command is: NET STATISTICS [WORKSTATION | SERVER] NET STATISTICS displays the statistics log for the local Workstation or Server service. Used without parameters, NET STATISTICS displays the services for which statistics are available. SERVER Displays the Server service statistics. WORKSTATION Displays the Workstation service statistics.

NET CONFIG SERVER
The syntax of this command is: NET CONFIG SERVER [/AUTODISCONNECT:time] [/SRVCOMMENT:"text"] [/HIDDEN:{YES | NO}] NET CONFIG SERVER displays or changes settings for the Server service. /AUTODISCONNECT:time Sets the maximum number of minutes a user's session can be inactive before it is disconnected. You can specify -1 to never disconnect. The range is -1-65535 minutes; the default is 15. /SRVCOMMENT:"text" Adds a comment for the server that is displayed in Windows NT Screens and with the NET VIEW command. The comment can have as many as 48 characters. Enclose the text in quotation marks. /HIDDEN:{YES | NO} Specifies whether the server's computername appears on display listings of servers. Note that hiding a server does not alter the permissions on that server. The default is NO. To display the current configuration for the Server service, type NET CONFIG SERVER without parameters.

NET NAME
The syntax of this command is: NET NAME [name [/ADD | /DELETE]] NET NAME adds or deletes a messaging name (alias) at a computer. A messaging name is a name to which messages are sent. When used without options, NET NAME displays the names accepting messages at the computer. A computer's list of names comes from three places: _ Message names, which are added with NET NAME _ A computername, which is added as a name when the Workstation service is started. This name cannot be deleted. _ A username, which is added as a name when you log on, if it is not being used at another computer. This name can be deleted. name Specifies the name to receive messages. The name can have as many as 15 characters. /ADD Adds a name to a computer. Typing /ADD is optional; typing NET NAME name works the same way as typing NET NAME name /ADD. /DELETE Removes a name from a computer.

NET STOP
The syntax of this command is: NET STOP service NET STOP stops Windows NT services. Stopping a service cancels any network connections the service is using. Also, some services are dependent on others. Stopping one service can stop others. You must have administrative rights to stop the Server service. The Eventlog service cannot be stopped. service Is one of the following services: ALERTER CLIENT SERVICE FOR NETWARE CLIPBOOK SERVER COMPUTER BROWSER DIRECTORY REPLICATOR FTP SERVER LPDSVC MESSENGER NET LOGON NETWORK DDE NETWORK DDE DSDM NETWORK MONITORING AGENT NT LM SECURITY SUPPORT PROVIDER REMOTE ACCESS CONNECTION MANAGER REMOTE ACCESS ISNSAP SERVICE REMOTE ACCESS SERVER REMOTE PROCEDURE CALL (RPC) LOCATOR REMOTE PROCEDURE CALL (RPC) SERVICE SCHEDULE SERVER SIMPLE TCP/IP SERVICES SNMP SPOOLER TCPIP NETBIOS HELPER UPS WORKSTATION These services are available only on Windows NT Server: FILE SERVER FOR MACINTOSH GATEWAY SERVICE FOR NETWARE MICROSOFT DHCP SERVER PRINT SERVER FOR MACINTOSH REMOTEBOOT WINDOWS INTERNET NAME SERVICE NET STOP can also stop network services not provided with Windows NT.

NET CONFIG WORKSTATION
The syntax of this command is: NET CONFIG WORKSTATION [/CHARCOUNT:bytes] [/CHARTIME:msec] [/CHARWAIT:sec] NET CONFIG WORKSTATION displays or changes settings for the Workstation service. /CHARCOUNT:bytes Specifies the amount of data Windows NT collects before sending the data to a communication device. If /CHARTIME:msec is also set, Windows NT acts on whichever option is satisfied first. The range is 0-65535 bytes; the default is 16 bytes. /CHARTIME:msec Sets the number of milliseconds Windows NT collects data before sending the data to a communication device. If /CHARCOUNT:bytes is also set, Windows NT acts on whichever option is satisfied first. The range is 0-65535000 milliseconds; the default is 250 milliseconds. /CHARWAIT:sec Sets the number of seconds Windows NT waits for a communication device to become available. The range is 0-65535 seconds; the default is 3600 seconds. To display the current configuration for the Workstation service, type NET CONFIG WORKSTATION without parameters.

NET PAUSE
The syntax of this command is: NET PAUSE service NET PAUSE suspends a Windows NT service or resource. Pausing a service puts it on hold. service Is the service to be paused. Can be one of the following: FILE SERVER FOR MACINTOSH FTP SERVER LPDSVC NET LOGON NETWORK DDE NETWORK DDE DSDM NT LM SECURITY SUPPORT PROVIDER REMOTEBOOT REMOTE ACCESS SERVER SCHEDULE SERVER SIMPLE TCP/IP SERVICES WORKSTATION

NET TIME
The syntax of this command is: NET TIME [\\computername | /DOMAIN[:domainname]] [/SET] NET TIME synchronizes the computer's clock with that of another computer or domain, or displays the time for a computer or domain. When used without options on a Windows NT Server domain, it displays the current date and time at the computer designated as the time server for the domain. \\computername Is the name of the computer you want to check or synchronize with. /DOMAIN[:domainname] Specifies the domain with which to synchronize time. /SET Synchronizes the computer's time with the time on the specified computer or domain.

NET CONTINUE
The syntax of this command is: NET CONTINUE service NET CONTINUE reactivates a Windows NT service that has been suspended by NET PAUSE. service Is the paused service. Can be one of the following: FILE SERVER FOR MACINTOSH FTP SERVER LPDSVC NET LOGON NETWORK DDE NETWORK DDE DSDM NT LM SECURITY SUPPORT PROVIDER REMOTEBOOT REMOTE ACCESS SERVER SCHEDULE SERVER SIMPLE TCP/IP SERVICES WORKSTATION

NET PRINT
The syntax of this command is: NET PRINT \\computername\sharename [\\computername] job# [/HOLD | /RELEASE | /DELETE] NET PRINT displays print jobs and shared queues. For each queue, the display lists jobs, showing the size and status of each job, and the status of the queue. \\computername Is the name of the computer sharing the printer queue(s). sharename Is the name of the shared printer queue. job# Is the identification number assigned to a print job. A computer with one or more printer queues assigns each print job a unique number. /HOLD Prevents a job in a queue from printing. The job stays in the printer queue, and other jobs bypass it until it is released. /RELEASE Reactivates a job that is held. /DELETE Removes a job from a queue.

NET USE
The syntax of this command is: NET USE [devicename | *] [\\computername\sharename[\volume] [password | *]] [/USER:[domainname\]username] [[/DELETE] | [/PERSISTENT:{YES | NO}]] NET USE [devicename | *] [password | *]] [/HOME] NET USE [/PERSISTENT:{YES | NO}] NET USE connects a computer to a shared resource or disconnects a computer from a shared resource. When used without options, it lists the computer's connections. devicename Assigns a name to connect to the resource or specifies the device to be disconnected. There are two kinds of devicenames: disk drives (D: through Z:) and printers (LPT1: through LPT3:). Type an asterisk instead of a specific devicename to assign the next available devicename. \\computername Is the name of the computer controlling the shared resource. If the computername contains blank characters, enclose the double backslash (\\) and the computername in quotation marks (" "). The computername may be from 1 to 15 characters long. \sharename Is the network name of the shared resource. \volume Specifies a NetWare volume on the server. You must have Client Services for Netware (Windows NT Workstations) or Gateway Service for Netware (Windows NT Server) installed and running to connect to NetWare servers. password Is the password needed to access the shared resource. * Produces a prompt for the password. The password is not displayed when you type it at the password prompt. /USER Specifies a different username with which the connection is made. domainname Specifies another domain. If domain is omitted, the current logged on domain is used. username Specifies the username with which to logon. /HOME Connects a user to their home directory. /DELETE Cancels a network connection and removes the connection from the list of persistent connections. /PERSISTENT Controls the use of persistent network connections. The default is the setting used last. YES Saves connections as they are made, and restores them at next logon. NO Does not save the connection being made or subsequent connections; existing connections will be restored at next logon. Use the /DELETE switch to remove persistent connections.

NET FILE
The syntax of this command is: NET FILE [id [/CLOSE]] NET FILE closes a shared file and removes file locks. When used without options, it lists the open files on a server. The listing includes the identification number assigned to an open file, the pathname of the file, the username, and the number of locks on the file. This command works only on computers running the Server service. id Is the identification number of the file. /CLOSE Closes an open file and removes file locks. Type this command from the server where the file is shared.

NET SEND
The syntax of this command is: NET SEND {name | * | /DOMAIN[:name] | /USERS} message Sends messages to other users, computers, or messaging names on the network. The Messenger service must be running to receive messages. You can send a message only to an name that is active on the network. If the message is sent to a username, that user must be logged on and running the Messenger service to receive the message. name Is the username, computername, or messaging name to send the message to. If the name is a computername that contains blank characters, enclose the alias in quotation marks (" "). * Sends the message to all the names in your group. /DOMAIN[:name] Sends the message to all the names in the workstation domain. If name is specified, the message is sent to all the names in the specified domain or workgroup. /USERS Sends the message to all users connected to the server. message Is text to be sent as a message.

NET USER
The syntax of this command is: NET USER [username [password | *] [options]] [/DOMAIN] username {password | *} /ADD [options] [/DOMAIN] username [/DELETE] [/DOMAIN] NET USER creates and modifies user accounts on computers. When used without switches, it lists the user accounts for the computer. The user account information is stored in the user accounts database. This command works only on servers. username Is the name of the user account to add, delete, modify, or view. The name of the user account can have as many as 20 characters. password Assigns or changes a password for the user's account. A password must satisfy the minimum length set with the /MINPWLEN option of the NET ACCOUNTS command. It can have as many as 14 characters. * Produces a prompt for the password. The password is not displayed when you type it at a password prompt. /DOMAIN Performs the operation on the primary domain controller of the current domain. This parameter applies only to Windows NT Workstation computers that are members of a Windows NT Server domain. By default, Windows NT Server computers perform operations on the primary domain controller. /ADD Adds a user account to the user accounts database. /DELETE Removes a user account from the user accounts database. Options Are as follows: Options Description -------------------------------------------------------------------- /ACTIVE:{YES | NO} Activates or deactivates the account. If the account is not active, the user cannot access the server. The default is YES. /COMMENT:"text" Provides a descriptive comment about the user's account (maximum of 48 characters). Enclose the text in quotation marks. /COUNTRYCODE:nnn Uses the operating system country code to implement the specified language files for a user's help and error messages. A value of 0 signifies the default country code. /EXPIRES:{date | NEVER} Causes the account to expire if date is set. NEVER sets no time limit on the account. An expiration date is in the form mm/dd/yy or dd/mm/yy, depending on the country code. Months can be a number, spelled out, or abbreviated with three letters. Year can be two or four numbers. Use slashes(/) (no spaces) to separate parts of the date. /FULLNAME:"name" Is a user's full name (rather than a username). Enclose the name in quotation marks. /HOMEDIR:pathname Sets the path for the user's home directory. The path must exist. /PASSWORDCHG:{YES | NO} Specifies whether users can change their own password. The default is YES. /PASSWORDREQ:{YES | NO} Specifies whether a user account must have a password. The default is YES. /PROFILEPATH[:path] Sets a path for the user's logon profile. /SCRIPTPATH:pathname Is the location of the user's logon script. /TIMES:{times | ALL} Is the logon hours. TIMES is expressed as day[-day][,day[-day]],time[-time][,time [-time]], limited to 1-hour increments. Days can be spelled out or abbreviated. Hours can be 12- or 24-hour notation. For 12-hour notation, use am, pm, a.m., or p.m. ALL means a user can always log on, and a blank value means a user can never log on. Separate day and time entries with a comma, and separate multiple day and time entries with a semicolon. /USERCOMMENT:"text" Lets an administrator add or change the User Comment for the account. /WORKSTATIONS:{computername[,...] | *} Lists as many as eight computers from which a user can log on to the network. If /WORKSTATIONS has no list or if the list is *, the user can log on from any computer.

NET GROUP
The syntax of this command is: NET GROUP [groupname [/COMMENT:"text"]] [/DOMAIN] groupname {/ADD [/COMMENT:"text"] | /DELETE} [/DOMAIN] groupname username [...] {/ADD | /DELETE} [/DOMAIN] NET GROUP adds, displays, or modifies global groups on servers. Used without parameters, it displays the groupnames on the server. groupname Is the name of the group to add, expand, or delete. Supply only a groupname to view a list of users in a group. /COMMENT:"text" Adds a comment for a new or existing group. The comment can have as many as 48 characters. Enclose the text in quotation marks. /DOMAIN Performs the operation on the primary domain controller of the current domain. Otherwise, the operation is performed on the local computer. This parameter applies only to Windows NT Workstation computers that are members of a Windows NT Server domain. By default, Windows NT Server computers perform operations on the primary domain controller. username[ ...] Lists one or more usernames to add to or remove from a group. Separate multiple username entries with a space. /ADD Adds a group, or adds a username to a group. /DELETE Removes a group, or removes a username from a group.

NET SESSION
The syntax of this command is: NET SESSION [\\computername] [/DELETE] NET SESSION lists or disconnects sessions between the computer and other computers on the network. When used without options, it displays information about all sessions with the computer of current focus. This command works only on servers. \\computername Lists the session information for the named computer. /DELETE Ends the session between the local computer and computername, and closes all open files on the computer for the session. If computername is omitted, all sessions are ended.

NET VIEW
The syntax of this command is: NET VIEW [\\computername | /DOMAIN[:domainname]] NET VIEW /NETWORK:NW [\\computername] NET VIEW displays a list of resources being shared on a computer. When used without options, it displays a list of computers in the current domain or network. \\computername Is a computer whose shared resources you want to view. /DOMAIN:domainname Specifies the domain for which you want to view the available computers. If domainname is omitted, displays all domains in the local area network. /NETWORK:NW Displays all available servers on a NetWare network. If a computername is specified, the resources available on that computer in the NetWare network will be displayed.

NETSTAT
Displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP network connections. NETSTAT [-a] [-e] [-n] [-s] [-p proto] [-r] [interval] -a Displays all connections and listening ports. (Server-side connections are normally not shown). -e Displays Ethernet statistics. This may be combined with the -s option. -n Displays addresses and port numbers in numerical form. -p proto Shows connections for the protocol specified by proto; proto may be tcp or udp. If used with the -s option to display per-protocol statistics, proto may be tcp, udp, or ip. -r Displays the contents of the routing table. -s Displays per-protocol statistics. By default, statistics are shown for TCP, UDP and IP; the -p option may be used to specify a subset of the default. interval Redisplays selected statistics, pausing interval seconds between each display. Press CTRL+C to stop redisplaying statistics. If omitted, netstat will print the current configuration information once.

NBTSTAT
Displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP connections using NBT (NetBIOS over TCP/IP). NBTSTAT [-a RemoteName] [-A IP address] [-c] [-n] [-r] [-R] [-RR] [-s] [-S] [interval] ] -a (adapter status) Lists the remote machine's name table given its name -A (Adapter status) Lists the remote machine's name table given its IP address. -c (cache) Lists the global remote name cache including the IP addr esses -C (cache) Lists the remote name cache with IP addresses on a per-d evice basis -n (names) Lists local NetBIOS names. -r (resolved) Lists names resolved by broadcast and via WINS -R (Reload) Purges and reloads the remote cache name table -S (Sessions) Lists sessions table with the destination IP addresses -s (sessions) Lists sessions table converting destination IP addresses to host names via the hosts file. -RR (ReleaseRefresh) Sends Name Release packets to WINs and then, starts Refr esh RemoteName Remote host machine name. IP address Dotted decimal representation of the IP address. interval Redisplays selected statistics, pausing interval seconds between each display. Press Ctrl+C to stop redisplaying statistics. script page